Following the passage of Law No. 2 of 1998, a new structure for the Abu Dhabi water and electricity sector came into existence and went into effect on 1 January 1999. The sector was unbundled into segments separately responsible for production, transmission, and distribution / supply. The sector is now characterised by its ‘single-buyer’ model, with ADWEC, TRANSCO, ADDC and AADC as monopoly companies.
The economic regulation of the sector companies draws upon the general duties of the DoE set out in the Law to promote competition in the sector, to ensure the operation and development of an efficient and economic sector, and to protect the interests of the consumers of water and electricity as to the terms and conditions and the price of supply.
These objectives are achieved mainly by the implementation of price controls for the monopoly companies (ADWEC, TRANSCO, ADDC, AADC, RASCO, and ADSSC) and by ensuring the economic purchase of water, electricity, and fuel by ADWEC.
The price controls cap the revenue of the monopoly companies. In contrast, the revenues of the generation and desalination companies are constrained by the power and water purchase agreements (PWPAs) and the revenues of independent sewage treatment providers are constrained by the sewage treatment agreements (STAs), which are in turn subject to the economic purchasing licence obligations of ADWEC and ADSSC, respectively.
Price controls set a ceiling on the revenue that can be recovered from licensed activities. The price controls, for the most part, are of a "CPI-X" type, which define maximum allowed revenue (MAR) that each company can recover in respect of its licensed activities during each year of the control period. Currently, there are separate controls for the water and electricity businesses of the three network companies (TRANSCO, ADDC and AADC) and ADWEC.
"CPI-X" regulation is increasingly being adopted worldwide and is seen as delivering the best long-run combination of low prices and high quality of services to customers. CPI stands for Consumer Price Index used to adjust the allowed revenue for inflation from one year to another. X is a factor used to establish an appropriate profile of revenue over years.
To ensure the economy and efficiency of the sector, the Bureau's responsibility is reflected in the operating licences of the sector companies, which are subject to various requirements in respect of their economic purchasing and efficient operation.
For example, ADWEC in contracting for the purchase of capacity for water desalination or capacity for electricity generation, new or additional production capacity and fuel, shall purchase or otherwise acquire such capacity (or as the case may be, fuel and 'ancillary services') by adopting the most economic purchase method.
ADWEC's contractual relationship with the new generation and desalination companies created under the Law takes the form of a number of power and water purchase agreements (PWPA). The PWPAs for new plants are twenty-year contracts and are competitively procured. For existing plants, payment terms in the PWPA are benchmarked against the costs of a new plant to ensure that they are efficient.
Similarly, the monopoly electricity and water transmission company (TRANSCO) which is also responsible for the economic despatch of plants and the settlement of payments, is subject to a licence obligation requiring the despatch of plants and procurement of 'ancillary services' to be on an economic basis.
Similar is the case with ADSSC, whose procurement of wastewater treatment services from independent sewage treatment plant under the sewage treatment agreements (STAs) is subject to satisfaction of its economic purchasing obligations.
The PWPA and fuel costs for ADWEC and STA costs for ADSSC are treated on a pass-through basis under their price controls, subject to fulfilment of their economic purchasing obligations.
In 2003, the Bureau undertook a review of the Abu Dhabi Company for Servicing Remote Areas’ (RASCO) economic regulation. Following the restructuring of its activities and assets effective 1 January 2001, RASCO became responsible only for electricity generation and water production activities, which were managed by ADDC and AADC on RASCO's behalf. Electricity and water produced by RASCO were sold to ADDC and AADC for distribution and supply to the final customers.
RASCO has been subject to a separate price control regime since 2004. The current price controls are set to apply indefinitely until the Bureau and the company agree otherwise.
They are to that of other monopoly companies in the sector, with the following main features:
- The type of price control was two incentive-based CPI-X revenue caps for RASCO's maximum allowed revenue (MAR) from its customers ADDC and AADC, separately for its electricity generation and water production activities;
- The initial duration for price control was two years (2004-2005). The controls have subsequently been extended and will continue in operation until such time as amended by the Bureau.
RASCO's MAR a term allowing the recovery of reasonable fuel costs to incentivise it to improve its fuel consumption efficiency.
Review of Economic Regulation of RASCO from 2004 - Final Proposals
RASCo's final proposal consultation paper - November 2003download
Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company (ADSSC) became wholly owned by ADWEA when it was established on 21 June 2005 by Law No. (17) of 2005 to provide sewerage services within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. ADSSC took over ownership, management and operations of the sewerage system previously run by the Abu Dhabi and Al Ain Municipalities.
Like the network companies, ADSSC is a monopoly being the only provider of sewerage services, and it is therefore necessary for its activities to be price controlled to protect the interests of the consumers of sewerage services with regards to charges and the quality of service provided. The Bureau set its first price control to apply from the date of establishment of ADSSC until the end of 2009.
The Bureau set its first price control to apply from the date of establishment of ADSSC until the end of 2009. The subsequent price controls for ADSSC run alongside the PC4 and PC5 controls for other network companies. Currently, there is a single price control that covers all the three businesses of ADSSC (ie, collection, treatment and disposal).
2007 Price Control Review for ADSSC: Final Proposalsdownload
2007 Price Controls Review for ADSSC First Consultation Paperdownload
2007 price control review for ADSSC: Draft Proposalsdownload
In 1999, following the restructuring of the sector, the Bureau established initial price controls for the water and electricity businesses of ADWEC, TRANSCO, ADDC and AADC.
These price controls came into effect on 1 January 1999, and were initially set to last for three years. They were subsequently extended for a further year.
Under the first price controls (PC1), each of the three network companies (AADC, ADDC and TRANSCO) had separate price controls for its water and electricity businesses. There was no separation of controls between distribution and supply businesses of distribution companies and between water and electricity businesses of ADWEC. For network companies’ revenue in each year was determined by a formula with three components: a fixed term and two variable terms that were linked to companies’ outputs or demands such as customer number, units transmitted or distributed and peak demands.
Each of these revenue drivers changed from year to year by the rate of increase in inflation less an "X" factor. The rate of inflation used in the price control formula was a composite of US and UAE consumer price inflation (CPI).
Distribution companies were allowed to pass-through the cost of purchases of electricity from ADWEC through the BST and the cost of TRANSCO's transmission use-of-system (TUoS) charges.
ADWEC's price control was somewhat different to the controls for the network businesses, as most of ADWEC's costs represented payments under the PWPAs and fuel supply agreements which were therefore considered on a pass-through basis subject to economic purchasing obligation. ADWEC's procurement costs, over which ADWEC has direct control, were subject to a CPI-X incentive regulation for water and electricity combined.
The Bureau published separate consultation papers on PC1 controls for distribution companies, TRANSCO and ADWEC.
First Consultation on the Price Control for Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Companydownload
Second Consultation on the Price Control for Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Companydownload
During 2002, the Bureau undertook a review of the price controls which apply to the sector monopoly companies (ADWEC, TRANSCO, ADDC and AADC) and set the second price controls (PC2) to apply for three years from 2003 to 2005.
PC2 controls presented the following main differences from PC1:
- a new term was introduced into TRANSCO's price controls to allow the pass-through of the costs of ancillary services, subject to the existing economic purchasing obligations;
- TRANSCO's 'unit transmitted' revenue drivers for electricity and water were redefined to refer only to units transmitted through exit meters complaint with the Metering and Data Exchange Code (MDEC);
- CPI was defined solely in terms of UAE inflation (some of the first controls used both UAE CPI and US CPI);
- for ADDC and AADC, the price controls were extended in scope to also include the distribution and supply businesses assumed to have been inherited from RASCO with effect from 1 January 2001; and
- a performance incentive scheme, represented by a new term "Q" in the price control formulae, was introduced to additionally link maximum allowed revenues to certain aspects of each company's performance.
2002 Price Controls Review Final Proposals for PC2download
2002 Price Controls Review Draft Proposals for PC2download
Initial Consultation on the Review of Price Controls for AADC, ADDC, TRANSCO and ADWECdownload
During 2004 and 2005, the Bureau undertook a review of the price controls which apply to the sector monopoly companies (ADWEC, TRANSCO, ADDC and AADC) and set the third price controls (PC3) to apply for four years from 2006 to 2009.
The form of controls remained CPI-X revenue capped linked to 'revenue drivers' with a Performance Incentive Scheme (PIS). The new incorporated structural features compared to PC2 are as follows:
- all controls were set for a four-years duration (2006 - 2009 inclusive);
- separate price controls were introduced for ADWEC's water and electricity businesses;
- all income from licensed activities were included within 'regulated revenue';
- ADWEC was required to produce a formal report to the Bureau of its unit production costs increase (for water and electricity separately) compared to the previous year; and
- the definitions of revenue drivers were unchanged from the PC2 period except for peak demand-related drivers for TRANSCO (for both water and electricity), which were based only on metered units in compliance with the Metering and Data Exchange Code at exit points on leaving the transmission system.
In March 2006, the Bureau published an Addendum to PC3 Final Proposals, concerning ADDC and AADC only. PC3 were accepted by all licensees concerned (AADC, ADDC, ADWEC and TRANSCO) and came into effect on 1 January 2006.
2005 Price Controls Review Final Proposals for PC3 14 November 2005
This document describes the Bureaus Final Proposals for PC3 for AADC, ADDC, ADWEC and TRANSCO taking...download
2005 Price Controls Review Draft Proposals for PC3 July 2005
In August 2004, the Regulation and Supervision Bureau (the Bureau) commenced a review of the price...download
2005 Price Controls Review Second Consultation Paper February 2005
In August 2004, the Regulation and Supervision Bureau (the Bureau) commenced a review of the price...download
2005 Price Controls Review First Consultation Paper August 2004
AADC, ADDC, ADWEC, RASCO and TRANSCO each have substantial market power. These businesses are therefore subject...download
During 2008 - 2009, the Bureau undertook a review of the price controls for all the four network companies (AADC, ADDC, TRANSCO and ADSSC) and set the fourth price controls (PC4) to apply for four years from 2010 to 2013.
The Bureau undertook a separate review of price controls for ADWEC to set the new controls to apply for five years (2010-2014).
For network companies, the form of controls remained CPI-X revenue capped linked to 'revenue drivers' with a Performance Incentive Scheme (PIS). A number of changes were made to the price controls, particularly the following:
- AADC and ADDC were allowed a pass-through treatment of their electricity purchases from embedded generation (subject to economic purchasing obligation);
- ADSSC was allowed a pass-through treatment of costs paid under sewage treatment agreements (STAs) (subject to economic purchasing obligation);
- TRANSCO's price controls were extended to cover unlicensed transmission activities outside the Emirate of Abu Dhabi that use the common assets shared by the licensed and unlicensed activities; and
the existing performance incentive scheme (PIS) were enhanced with further incentives
2009 Price Controls Review Final Proposals
This document describes the Bureau’s Final Proposals for PC4 price controls for the four network companies...download
2009 Price Controls Review Draft Proposals
This document describes our Draft Proposals for PC4 for AADC, ADDC, ADSSC and TRANSCO taking into...download
2009 Price Controls Review Second Consultation Paper
In November 2008, the Bureau published the First Consultation Paper to commence a review of the...download
2009 Price Controls Review: First Consultation Paper
The water and electricity sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is characterised by the single-buyer...download
2010 Price Controls Review for ADWEC Final Proposals
This document describes our Final Proposals for the new price controls for ADWEC for 2010 onwards,...download
2009 Price Controls Review for ADWEC Draft Proposals
The previous price controls for ADWEC were intended to be replaced by new price controls for...download
2009 Price Controls Review for ADWEC Second Consultation Paper
The water and electricity sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is characterised by thesingle-buyer structure...download
The Bureau is presently consulting on new price controls for the four network companies (AADC, ADDC, ADSSC and TRANSCO) to apply for the fifth price controls (PC5) to take effect from 1 January 2014.
2013 Price Control Review PC5 Final Proposals
The Bureau has issued the Final Proposals for the new PC5 price controls to apply to...download
2013 Price Control Review PC5 Draft Proposals
This document describes the Bureau’s draft proposals for the PC5 price controls for AADC, ADDC, TRANSCO...download
2013 Price Control Review PC5 Second Consultation Paper
This second consultation paper on the PC5 review for AADC, ADDC, TRANSCO and ADSSC summarises the...download
In February 2016, the Bureau commenced its review of the price controls for the four network companies (AADC, ADDC, ADSSC and TRANSCO), taking effect from 1 January 2018.
First Regulatory Controls – RC1 First Consultation Paper
This first consultation paper published on 4 February 2016 sets out the strategic issues which, on...download
First Regulatory Controls – RC1 Second Consultation Paper
This second consultation paper, published on 18 September 2016, summarises the responses to the first consultation...download
First Regulatory Controls – RC1 Draft Proposals
These controls will apply to the electricity, water and wastewater businesses of the four network companies...download
On 12 November 2017, the Bureau published the final proposals for first regulatory controls (RC1). These controls will apply to the electricity, water and wastewater businesses of the four network companies (AADC, ADDC, TRANSCO and ADSSC) for four years (2018-2021).
his document sets out our final proposals on the new price controls taking into account the sector’s detailed responses to the RC1 draft proposals issued in April 2017 and recent extensive engagement. The Bureau has also issued proposed licence modifications to the network companies, which if accepted by the companies will give effect to the RC1 controls from 1 January 2018.
First Regulatory Controls – RC1 Final Proposals
On 12 November 2017, the Bureau published the final proposals for first regulatory controls (RC1). These...download
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